1Geoffrey of Monmouth. The History of the Kings of Britain. Lewis Thorpe, trans. London: Peguin Books, 1966. 172-75.

2Loomis, Laura H. A. "Geoffrey of Monmouth and Stonehenge." PMLA 45.2 (1930): 400.
The story of the Irish origin of Stonehenge was repeated a generation after Geoffrey by Giraldus Cambrensis in his Topographia Hibernica (1187). Loomis adds, "Chroniclers repeated the tale and successive generations believed, to borrow Spenser's wording, that they could 'Th'eternall marks of treason... at Stonheng vew.' (F. Q.,II, x, 66)." The earliest known mention of Stonehenge was by Henry of Huntingdon in 1130: ""Stanenges, where the stones of wonderful size have been erected after the manner of doorways, so that doorway appears to have been raised upon doorway; and no one can conceive how such great stones have been so raised aloft, or why they were built there." Thomas Arnold (ed.) Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum. Rolls series, London: Longman & Trübner, 1879. 11-12.

3Grinsell, L. V. "The Legendary History and Folklore of Stonehenge." Folklore 87.1 (1976): 17.
Not a "survival" but a "revival" of the legend may be noted here, in a site promoting the novel Merlin Built Stonehenge.

4Loomis 400.
According to Loomis, this story was first printed in 1724 and repeated in an 1821 publication. E. H. Wood (1924) thinks that it may have originated from a tale told to the author of the 1724 book, John Wood.

5Grinsell 5.

6 O'Donovan, John, Thomas O'Connor, P. (Patrick) O'Keeffe, and Michael Herity. Ordnance Survey Letters Letters Containing Information Relative to the Antiquities of the County of Kildare Collected during the Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 1837, 1838, and 1839. Dublin: Four Masters, 2002. 180-81 (orig. ms.).

7Burl, Aubrey. The Stone Circles of the British Isles. New Haven: Yale UP, 1976. 14.

8Loomis 415.

9Chippindale, Christopher. Stonehenge Complete. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1983. 186.

10Wood-Martin, W.G., The Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland: Co. Sligo and Achill Island. Dublin: Hodges, Figges and Co., 1888. 130.
According to Loomis, "Geoffrey's Historia implies or states the following more or less factual elements: (1) Stonehenge was a great stone circle called the Giants' Dance; (2) it was used for a funerary monument though not originally erected for that purpose; (3) it was built of stones that were Stones of Worship, Mystici Lapides, (4) stones that were brought from afar; and (5) it was related in some way to the stone circles in Africa and Ireland. Since these statements or implications can now be shown to correspond to other megalithic legends or to certain facts known only in modern times in regard to megaliths in general and to Stonehenge in particular, it is evident that they could not have been invented by Geoffrey but must have been known to him through antecedent tradition." Loomis, Laura H. A. "Geoffrey of Monmouth and Stonehenge." PMLA 45.2 (1930): 401.

11Stukeley, William. Stonehenge, a Temple Restor'd to the British Druids. London: Printed for W. Innys and R. Manby, 1740. 12.

12Chippindale 82.

13"William Stukeley." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Stukeley>.

14Mortimer, Neil. Stukeley Illustrated: William Stukeley's Rediscovery of Britain's Ancient Sites. London: Green Magic, 2003. 11.

15Chippindale 91.

16Chippindale 84.

17Voss, Jerome A. "Antiquity Imagined: Cultural Values in Archaeological Folklore." Folklore 98.1 (1987): 82.
As Voss puts it, ".. the public mind, having been conditioned by generations of authorities to see Stonehenge as a temple of the Druids, could hardly be blamed if it were somewhat less agile than that of the professors in turning against the Druid image."

18Chippindale 44.
Before it was bequeathed to the state in 1918 the Stonehenge property went through a succession of private hands, last selling for £6,600 in 1915. For a 50-year period in the mid-seventeenth century Sir Lawrence Washington, an ancestor of the American president, owned the property.

19Chippindale 190.

20"Stonehenge Summer Solstice Tour 2011. Private Access." The Stonehenge Tour Company. Daily Sightseeing Tours From London. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://www.stonehengetours.com/html/summer-solstice-tour.htm>.

21"Inigo Jones' Stone-heng Restored." St John's College. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library/special_collections/early_books/pix/stonehenge.htm>
Jones died in 1652. The book was published posthumously in 1655 by his assistant John Webb.

22Allcroft, A. H. "The Modernity of Stonehenge." Nineteenth Century 88.1 (1920): 678.

23Chippindale 267-72.
The 2010 Nova program (PBS), "The Secrets of Stonehenge," has information on more recent archaeological discoveries. It may be viewed online here.

24Ray, Benjamin C. "Stonehenge: A New Theory." History of Religions 26.3 (1987): 232.

25Grinsell 7-8.

26Grinsell 7-8.

27Grinsell 13-14.

28Ray 239-45.

29Hawkes, Jacquetta. "God in the Machine." Antiquity 41 (1967): 175.

30Hawkes 174

31Hawkes 176-77.
As defined by Wikipedia, archaeoastronomy is "..[A] field with academic work of high quality at one end but uncontrolled speculation bordering on lunacy at the other."

32Hawkes 176-77.

33Chippindale 224.

34Hawkes 180.

35Hadingham, Evan. "Astronomy at Stonehenge?" Nova. Prod. David Levin. PBS. Nova Podcasts. 30 Sept. 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/astronomy-stonehenge-au.html>.

36Michell, John. Megalithomania: Artists, Antiquarians, and Archaeologists at the Old Stone Monuments. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1982. 31.

37Wordsworth, William, Selincourt Ernest De, and Helen Darbishire. The Poetical Works of William Wordsworth. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon, 1952.