1Ó Riain, Pádraig. "Traces of Lug in Early Irish Hagiographical Tradition." Zeitschrift Für Celtische Philologie 36 (1978): 138.
The upper-case C in Christianity was added for clarity. The author borrowed the phrase "pagan survivals and reminiscences from a chapter heading in H. Delehaye, The Legends of the Saints (London, 1907). The remainder of the quotation is largely derived from C. Plummer, Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae : partim hactenus ineditae (1910, cxxxiv). Plummer wrote: "The Christian teachers never took the line of denying the reality of its existence. It was gentile or diabolic knowledge, powerfully ranged against themselves. But the other element is a matter of inference. Its direct exposition was made impossible by the acceptance of Christianity. The impact of the stronger creed shattered it into fragments but many of the fragments floated down the stream of time, and recombined in fantastic shapes around the persons of pagan heroes and Christian saints, who are not therefore necessarily non-existent or non-historical' because they have formed the nucleus round which mythological elements have gathered ; any more than the sponge is non-existent, because it has served to attract the particles of silex which have turned it into flint."

2Cleary, Rose Marie. "Labbamologa, Co. Cork." Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 105 (2000): 44-65.
St. Molaga is also known as Molua, or Molacca, and Lachtene, Laicin, or Laichen.

3Cleary 45-6.
According to the author, about two-thirds of the large curvilinear enclosure, which may indicate the ancient field walls of the monastary, may noted. See the aerial photograph in the gallery.

4Borlase, William Copeland. The Dolmens of Ireland, Their Distribution, Structural Characteristics, and Affinities in Other Countries. Vol. 3. London: Chapman & Hall, Ld., 1897. 769.

5White, James G. Historical and Topographical Notes, Etc. on Buttevant, Castletownroche, Doneraile, Mallow, and Places in Their Vicinity. Vol. 1. Cork: Guy and Co., Ltd., 1905. 1-5.

6Borlase 768.
Borlase is here referencing Windele's observations from a half century earlier (MS J. Windele "Cork W. and N.E." p. 79). Some refer to a stone alignment such as this as a "four-poster."

7Leask, Harold G. Irish Churches and Monastic Buildings: The First Phases and The Romanesque, Vol. 1. Dundalk: Dundalgan, 1955. 61-2.

8Leask 61-2.

9A volute is a spiral or scroll-like carving, said to resemble the ornament of an Ionic column's capital.
The feast day of St. Molaga is January 20, said to be the date of his death, although the year is unknown. (Cleary, Rose Marie. "Labbamologa, Co. Cork." Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 105 (2000): 44-5.)

10White 1-5.
John Windele wrote that on a previous visit he had seen five pillars, but there were but four when he returned in 1852 (MS J. Windele "Cork W. and N.E." p. 79).
Col. White reported seeing faint circle markings on some of the pillar stones.

11Cleary 44-5.

12Borlase 769.

13Ó Riain 142+.
The author concludes with, "Thus, while the standing stones adjacent to Molacca's church of Templemolaga are a clear indication that the place was once a centre of pagan worship. a much more important indication of Molacca's own suspect origins is the tradition which states that, of the three noble fineda 'families' of the Uí Chúscraid, his was the clann Luchta [from Lug].

14Bhreathnach, Edel. Rev. of Early medieval Munster: archaeology, history and society. Michael A. Monk and John Sheehan (ed.). Celtica 24 (2003): 335.

15Freitag, Barbara. Sheela-Na-Gigs Unraveling an Enigma. New York: Routledge, 2004. 107.
The full text of this document may be read here.

16Jackson, Kenneth Hurstone. The Oldest Irish Tradition: A Window on the Iron Age. Cambridge: Cambridge UP 1964. 46.
As Walter Johnson observed, medieval clergy often expressed an interest in the excavation of prehistoric burial barrows, believing them to contain the bones of early Irish saints. "...we may infer that even the mediaeval churchmen imputed sanctity to barrows, although the belief found expression in paradoxical acts of desecration." (Johnson, Walter. Byways in British Archeology. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1912. 82-3.)
Also, note the story of the conversion of the three pagan princesses at the Ogulla Well of Rathcroghan.

17Wood-Martin, W. G. Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland. Vol. 2. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1902. 311-14.

18MacCana, Proinsias. Celtic Mythology. New York: Hamlyn, 1970.
Additional information may be found on Wikipedia.

19Butler, Hubert. Ten Thousand Saints: A Study in Irish & European Origins. Kilkenny, Ireland: Wellbrook, 1972. 57-61.
Historian and folklorist Ron James discusses Euhemerism, the idea the the principal characters of legends may be based upon historic individuals in an appendix to his e-book "Introduction to Foklore: Traditional Studies in Europe and Elsewhere." This appendix is presented in an abridged version below:"The idea that the gods and heroes of legend are based on real people had an early proponent in the Greek, late-fourth-century BCE writer, Euhemerus, giving his name to this approach to myth and legend: Euhemerism. Folklorists generally regard the idea that there was an actual basis for most oral tradition as barking up the wrong tree, because the original “real” event behind a story is usually elusive and searching for that core is a futile exercise. In addition, research into how stories began usually concludes that they emerge in a rather spontaneous way, typically without an actual incident to inspire them.

A simple Google search for the “origins of King Arthur” provides more websites than one could easily read in a week. Was there a proto-Arthur? Perhaps. Maybe there were several. But what does that prove? Every society has remarkable characters, and it may be a natural process for these sorts of individuals to attract all manner of traditional stories that have nothing to do with the original inspiration of the cycle of legends.
So what do we have with Arthur? Was there a core source (or sources) for this legendary character? Let’s concede for the sake of argument that the answer is yes. Now, did this individual have a great warrior at his side who became ensnared by the leader’s wife in the fashion of Lancelot and Guinevere? That is more problematic since this type of story is also associated with Diarmuid and Grainne in the Irish court of King Finn and with the Cornish stories of Tristan and Isolde in the court of King Mark. One could even argue that it is the story behind Helen of Troy. In fact, it appears that this was a widespread type of story that became associated with various courts of historical legend. We cannot conclude that every great king had a queen who was attracted to one of his warriors and coerced him to take her away. This is simply a story that was attached to cycles involving great courts. In short, the further one goes back to find the “real Arthur,” the less the candidate (or candidates) look like the King Arthur who has been beloved for centuries. The proto Arthurs are not really King Arthur. They may be seeds but they look nothing like the tree that would grow over the centuries. We do not hold an acorn and say “Ah, I have in my hand a mighty oak tree.” It is not yet a tree. It is a seed. And the two look very different even if they are genetically linked.

It doesn’t matter what is behind stories so much as it does that people tell these stories. I’m in it for that part of the game; I consider stories as they are told over time, to gain from that material some insight into the past, into culture, and into the human condition. I am a folklorist. And with that, my plate is full."

20White 1-5.
Of the carved volute on the stone, the author writes, "On this stone I found a perfect spiral inscribed, of about 5 inches outside diameter. The outside groove forming the spiral is continued down the length of the stone about 12 inches, returning up again in a parallel line to meet the spiral, leaving about an inch between the sinkings."
Of this stone Borlase wrote, "Although this stone is known from the Christian era as the cover slab of the grave of St. Molaga, it probably predates the saint by many centuries." (Borlase, William Copeland. The Dolmens of Ireland, Their Distribution, Structural Characteristics, and Affinities in Other Countries. Vol. 3. London: Chapman & Hall, Ld., 1897. 769.)

21Borlase 769.
A plaque at the site mentions another legend regarding a skull "which refuses to be buried." Local people, who thought the skull belonged to the guardian spirit of the graveyard, claimed that although many attempts were made to bury it, the skull always reappeared above ground.

22White 11.