1Maley, Willy. "Something Quite Atrocious: English Colonialism Beyond the Pale and the Licence to Violence." Eolas: The Journal of the American Society of Irish Medieval Studies 3 (2009): 82-83.Review of: Edwards, David, Pádraig Lenihan, and Clodagh Tait. Age of Atrocity: Violence and Political Conflict in Early Modern Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: Four Courts, 2007.
The quote is from Thomas Churchyard, A General Rehearsall of Warres (1579), wherein he explains the strategy of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in Ireland. The entire quote follows:
"He further tooke this order infringeble, that when soeuer he made any ostyng, or inrode, into the enemies Countrey, he killed manne, woman, and child, and spoiled, wasted, and burned, by the grounde all that he might: leauyng nothyng of the enemies in saffetie, whiche he could possiblie waste, or consume. And these were his reasons that perswaded hym thereto, as I haue often heard hym saie. Firste the men of warre could not bee maintained, without their Churles, and Calliackes, or women, who milked their Creates, and prouided their victualles, and other necessaries. So that the killyng of theim by the sworde, was the waie to kill the menne of warre by famine, who by flight oftentymes saued them selues from the dinte of the sworde."

2Heaney, Seamus. "Ocean's Love to Ireland." Irish University Review 4.2 (1974): 199-200.
The lines in the poem, "as gallant and good / Personages as ever were beheld," are quoted by Heaney from what were reported as Lord Grey's remarks when is he saw the bodies of the 600 slain prisoners “stripped and laid out upon the sands.” (Pope-Hennessy, John. Sir Walter Raleigh in Ireland. London: K. Paul, Trench, &, 1883.) The Heaney poem may be read in its entirety here.

3Cuppage, Judith. Archaeological Survey of the Dingle Peninsula: a Description of the Field Antiquities of the Barony of Corca Dhuibhne from the Mesolithic Period to the 17th Century A.D. Ballyferriter: Oidhreacht Chorca Dhuibhne, 1986. 424-25.

4Clodagh, Finn, and Tom Finn. "After the Gold Rush." Archaeology Ireland 16.1 (2002): 24-27.

5Snoddy, Oliver. "Dún an Óir." The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 102.2 (1972): 247-48.

6Westropp 194.

7"The Second Desmond Rebellion." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 19 June 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Desmond_Rebellion>.

8Westropp 194.

9"Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey De Wilton." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 19 June 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Grey,_14th_Baron_Grey_of_Wilton>.

10Westropp 195.
The ships which engaged the fort were the " Swiftsure," the " Tiger," the "Marlyon," and the “Revenge.” The most famous battle of the Revenge was the subject of the Alfred Lord Tennyson poem titled after her.

11Westropp 196.

12"Review of "The Massacre at Smerwick" 1937." Ulster Journal of Archaeology 2 (1939): 127-28.

13L.P.M. "Review of "The Massacre at Smerwick" 1937." Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society 9.1 (1037): 64.

14"Review of "The Massacre at Smerwick" 1937." Ulster Journal of Archaeology 2 (1939): 127-28.
It seems that the English felt that they had no obligation to recognize the sovereignty of the Pope, who financed the expeditionary forces, and the King of Spain did not wish to be implicated in the attack. Thus the Catholic forces were thought of as bandits who were not deserving of the normal treatment specified for prisoners of war.

15J.R. "Review of "The Massacre at Smerwick." Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 27.108 (1938): 690-92.

Another similar account is from a letter from Captain Bingham: "The bande which had the warde of that day, which was Mr. Denny's, then entered [the fort], but in the meantime there were also entered a number of mariners upon the part next to the sea, which with the soldiers aforesaid, having possessed the place, fell to spoiling and reveling and withal to killing, in which they never ceased while there lived one." {Bingham to Lane, from Smerwick Roades, 11th November, 1580."—"Cotton MSS.," Titus A., xii. 313, Brit. Museum.) Cited in: Hickson, Mary A. "Historic Truth and Sham Legends." The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Fifth 8.1 (1898): 65-66.

17"Dun an Oir." Wikimapia - Let's Describe the Whole World! Web. 19 June 2011. <http://wikimapia.org/11025172/Dun-an-Oir>.

18Spenser, Edmund, and Alexander B. Grosart. A Veue of the Present State of Ireland (1633). London: Hazell, Watson and Viney, 1882.
The pamphlet may be read in its entirely here, and its significance considered here.
One author believes that it could not have been Spenser who authored the Veue, as Grey was his patron, she argues, and Spenser would not have deliberately sabotaged his reputation. She insists that Grey was recalled, and fell into disfavor, not because of the Smerwick Massacre but rather because of his alleged financial mismanagement. The brutality at Smerwick, she says, was not condemned, rather it was praised, and even the Spanish hardly protested it. (Canino, Catherine G. "Reconstructing Lord Grey's Reputation: A New View of the View." The Sixteenth Century Journal 29.1 (1998): 3-18.)
The letter signed by Spenser, the second page of which is included on our Dún An Óir page was written by the poet for Lord Grey nineteen days after the massacre. This letter lists Grey’s activities in the days following, while he worked to strengthen the garrisons of the important fortresses south of Limerick. (Jenkins, Raymond. "Spenser with Lord Grey in Ireland." PMLA 52.2 (1937): 338-53.)


20Canino, Catherine G. "Reconstructing Lord Grey's Reputation: A New View of the View." The Sixteenth Century Journal 29.1 (1998): 3.

21Maley 89.
The title of the quoted 1581 pamphlet is: The true reporte of the prosperous successe which God gaue unto our English souldiours against the forraine bands of our Romaine enemies lately ariued, (but soone inough to theyr cost) in Ireland, in the yeare 1580.

22Hickson, Mary A. "Historic Truth and Sham Legends." The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Fifth 8.1 (1898): 65-66.
While many sources list Sir Walter Raleigh among the participants in the Smerwick Massacre, this author presents a well-documented argument that he could not have been present the day of the battle.

23Lister, David. "Massacre Victims from Raleigh's Time Return to Haunt Irish Shore." The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion. 13 Apr. 2004. Web. 20 June 2011. <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article822086.ece>.

24"Was It Blarney or Not? - Review of Dun An Oir, Dingle, Ireland." Reviews of Hotels, Flights and Vacation Rentals - TripAdvisor. 5 Mar. 2004. Web. 20 June 2011. <http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g211861-d216379-r1709086-Dun_An_Oir-Dingle_Dingle_Peninsula_County_Kerry.html>.
There actually were human bones found on a nearby beach south of Dun an Oir on Smerwick Harbor, with such discoveries dating from the 1980s. There a medieval cemetery of the thirteenth-fifteenth centuries, built close to the shoreline, was subject to erosion. Local residents and tourists alike reported finding bones while walking the nearby beaches. The site, called Teampall Bán, was stabilized by the construction of a sea wall in 1996 and additional work in 2005. (Bennett, Isabel. "Teampall Bán, Caherquin: Archaeological Context and Preliminary Survey/Excavation, Winter 1996/7." Ed. Michael Connolly. Past Kingdoms: Archaeological Research, Survey and Excavation in County Kerry. Proceedings of the 2005 Archaeological Lecture Series. The Heritage Council (2005): 66-75.)

25Jenkins, Raymond. "Spenser with Lord Grey in Ireland." PMLA 52.2 (1937): 351.